Educational Research in Medical Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Preparing Medical Students to Become Effective Tutors: A Reaction, Learning and Behavior Evaluation Study

Maryam Alizadeh 1 , * , Azim Mirzazadeh 2 , Mahboobeh Khabaz Mafinejad 3 and Soheil Peiman 4
Authors Information
1 Education Development Center, Tehran University of Medical Siences, Tehran, Iran
2 Medical Education Department, Health Professions Education Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Education Development Center, Health Professions Education Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Internal Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Educational Research in Medical Sciences: 7 (2); e85753
  • Published Online: January 1, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: October 25, 2018
  • Revised: November 20, 2018
  • Accepted: November 21, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/erms.85753

To Cite: Alizadeh M, Mirzazadeh A, Khabaz Mafinejad M, Peiman S . Preparing Medical Students to Become Effective Tutors: A Reaction, Learning and Behavior Evaluation Study, Educ Res Med Sci. Online ahead of Print ; 7(2):e85753. doi: 10.5812/erms.85753.

Copyright © 2019, Educational Research in Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Oda Y, Onishi H, Sakemi T. Effectiveness of student tutors in problem-based learning of undergraduate medical education. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2014;232(3):223-7. doi: 10.1620/tjem.232.223. [PubMed: 24646957].
  • 2. Thabet M, Taha EELS, Abood SA, Morsy SR. The effect of problem-based learning on nursing students' decision making skills and styles. J Nurs Educat Practice. 2017;7(6):108. doi: 10.5430/jnep.v7n6p108.
  • 3. Delaney Y, Pattinson B, McCarthy J, Beecham S. Transitioning from traditional to problem-based learning in management education: The case of a frontline manager skills development programme. Innov Educ Teach Int. 2015;54(3):214-22. doi: 10.1080/14703297.2015.1077156.
  • 4. Wosinski J, Belcher AE, Durrenberger Y, Allin AC, Stormacq C, Gerson L. Facilitating problem-based learning among undergraduate nursing students: A qualitative systematic review. Nurse Educ Today. 2018;60:67-74. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2017.08.015. [PubMed: 29032293].
  • 5. Burgess A, McGregor D, Mellis C. Medical students as peer tutors: A systematic review. BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:115. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-14-115. [PubMed: 24912500]. [PubMed Central: PMC4237985].
  • 6. Williams JC, Paltridge DJ. What we think we know about the tutor in problem-based learning. Health Professions Educat. 2017;3(1):26-31. doi: 10.1016/j.hpe.2016.05.001.
  • 7. Groves M, Rego P, O'Rourke P. Tutoring in problem-based learning medical curricula: The influence of tutor background and style on effectiveness. BMC Med Educ. 2005;5(1):20. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-5-20. [PubMed: 15938758]. [PubMed Central: PMC1180438].
  • 8. Baroffio A, Nendaz MR, Perrier A, Layat C, Vermeulen B, Vu NV. Effect of teaching context and tutor workshop on tutorial skills. Med Teach. 2006;28(4):e112-9. doi: 10.1080/01421590600726961. [PubMed: 16807161].
  • 9. Dolmans DH, Gijselaers WH, Moust JH, de Grave WS, Wolfhagen IH, van der Vleuten CP. Trends in research on the tutor in problem-based learning: Conclusions and implications for educational practice and research. Med Teach. 2002;24(2):173-80. doi: 10.1080/01421590220125277. [PubMed: 12098437].
  • 10. Liew SC, Sow CF, Sidhu J, Nadarajah VD. The near-peer tutoring programme: embracing the 'doctors-to-teach' philosophy: A comparison of the effects of participation between the senior and junior near-peer tutors. Med Educ Online. 2015;20:27959. doi: 10.3402/meo.v20.27959. [PubMed: 26356229]. [PubMed Central: PMC4565062].
  • 11. Hajihosseini F, Izadi A, Mahboobi M, Mohammadtabar R. [Effect of peer education on practical skills learning of nursing students in clinical skill lab (CSL) of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences]. Babol Univ Med Sci. 2013;1(1):13-7. Persian.
  • 12. Changiz T, Fakhari M, Omid A. [Kirkpatrick’s model: A framework for evaluating the effectiveness of short-term and in-service training programs]. Iran J Med Educat. 2014;13(12):1058-72. Persian.
  • 13. Reio TG, Rocco TS, Smith DH, Chang E. A critique of Kirkpatrick's evaluation model. New Hor Adult Educat Human Res Dev. 2017;29(2):35-53. doi: 10.1002/nha3.20178.
  • 14. Fusch GE, Ness LR. How to conduct a mini-ethnographic case study: A guide for novice researchers. Qual Rep. 2017;22(3):923-41.
  • 15. Hmelo-Silver CE. Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educat Psychol Rev. 2004;16(3):235-66. doi: 10.1023/B:EDPR.000.
  • 16. Song C, Davis BJ, Lambert DR. The medical education pathway: Description and early outcomes of a student-as-teacher program. Acad Med. 2015;90(4):458-61. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000548. [PubMed: 25354074].
  • 17. King A. ASK to THINK-TEL WHY: A model of transactive peer tutoring for scaffolding higher level complex learning. Educat Psychol. 1997;32(4):221-35. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep3204_3.
  • 18. Santee J, Garavalia L. Peer tutoring programs in health professions schools. Am J Pharm Educ. 2006;70(3):70. [PubMed: 17136190]. [PubMed Central: PMC1636940].
  • 19. Ward JD, Lee CL. A review of problem-based learning. J Family Consumer Sci Educat. 2002;20(1):16-26.
  • 20. Hadimani CP. Effectiveness of small group discussion sessions in teaching biochemistry for undergraduate medical students. South East Asian J Med Educ. 2014;8:77.
  • 21. Zunzarren GM, Rodriguez-Sedano A. Creating scenarios and guiding learning in a medical simulation center. Creative Educat. 2011;2(3):316-20. doi: 10.4236/ce.2011.23044.
  • 22. Takahashi Y, Oku SA. Attractive scenario writing. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2009;25(5):250-3. [PubMed: 19502145].
  • 23. Thistlethwaite JE, Davies D, Ekeocha S, Kidd JM, MacDougall C, Matthews P, et al. The effectiveness of case-based learning in health professional education. A BEME systematic review: BEME guide No. 23. Med Teach. 2012;34(6):e421-44. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2012.680939. [PubMed: 22578051].
  • 24. Peiman S, Mirzazadeh A, Alizadeh M, Mortaz Hejri S, Najafi MT, Tafakhori A, et al. A case based-shared teaching approach in undergraduate medical curriculum: A way for integration in basic and clinical sciences. Acta Med Iran. 2017;55(4):259-64. [PubMed: 28532138].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments